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The term is derived from Mexicano (Mexican), which is in turn derived from the Mexica Indians (Aztecs).

 During the 1920s/30s

Expert Answer

Chicano/a  During the 1920s/30s "the term was used by some Mexican Americans to describe in a disrespectful way recently arrived immigrants from Mexico who were thought to be socially inferior, less educated, Mexican Indian, or mestizo (of mixed Mexican Indian and European blood). The term is derived from Mexicano (Mexican), which is in turn derived from the Mexica Indians (Aztecs). The use of the term by Mexican Americans had racial overtones because of the inferiority they attributed to immigrants of whole or partial Indian origin. Cultural nationalists and other activists in the mid-1960s adopted the term as an expression of ethnic pride and used it to identify themselves in a positive was as descendants of Mexican Indians (Tatum, Chicano Popular Culture, 2001).  "The ethic label Chicano is a derivative of the Aztec tribe name Mexica, with the x pronounced like "ch" (Vigil, 1998, From Indians to Chicanos).  The word "Chicano" was in the 1920s and 1930s a "pejorative term whose origin is unknown (but several popular theories do exist). It was popularly used by the working class to refer to themselves. Often, however, middle-class Mexicans used it disparagingly-meaning low-class Mexicans. It the late 1960s, youth movements and political activists gave "Chicano" a political connotation" (e.g.,Negros-Blacks) (Acuna, 1986, Occupied America).  "the term Chicano (during the Chicano Movement of 60s/70s) referred to a "new" Mexican American, one who understood his or her (indigenous) roots and shunned assimilation or integration" (Garcia, 1998, Chicanismo).  Chicano is the term made popular by the Mexican American civil rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s; as an ethnic self-identifying label, it implied pride as well as activism and oppositional politics, much as the term "Black" did for African Americans during the same period" (Ramirez Berg, 2002, Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, Resistance ).  Chicana/o is often used to refer to U.S. born men and women of Mexican descent who "identify with a collective history of oppression and pride connected to a political consciousness with its origins in El Movimiento or the Mexican American civil rights movement" (Delgado Bernal, Chicana/Latina Education in Everyday Live).  "Basically, the term Chicana implies an understanding of the history of neglect and discrimination endured by Mexican- American people in the United States" (Blea, 1992, La Chicana and the Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender).  "Chicano" is a word self-consciously selected (i.e., self-definition) selected by many persons as symbolic of positive identification with a unique cultural heritage" (Mirande, A. 1985, The Chicano Experience).  "A strict colloquial usage suggest that it is a shortened form of Mexicano, which gained renewed popularity during the 1960s Chicano movement...used to reflect multiple-heritage experience of Mexicans in the United States, comprised of Indian, Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo backgrounds. The Political consciousness-raising events of the 1960s helped develop an appreciation of Chicanos' multicultural heritage" (Vigil, 1998, From Indians to Chicanos).  "An emphatically self-affirming and political term reflecting the cultural realities of urban, economically oppressed Mexican Americans in U.S. society Chicano grew out of the Brown Power Movement in the 1960s. It was never wholly accepted in the general community. Although used by many scholars and activists, the more descriptive but less political term Mexican American has been more common in many segments of the community" (Nieto, 2000, Affirming Diversity). Chicana  "...the term "Chicana" has feminist connotations, but it may also denote simply feminine gender ...a word "rooted in the Chicano movement of the 1969s and is a political, ideological term describing a group of people with shared cultural characteristics and shared political interpretations of their experiences...the term Chicana, like Chicano, self-selectively identifies women with a certain ideology" (i.e., social justice, gender equality, social consciousness, etc.) (Blea, 1992, La Chicana & the Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender).  "The term Chicana was coined during the Chicano Movement by Mexican American women who wanted to establish social, cultural, and political identities for themselves in America. Chicana refers to a woman who embracers her Mexican culture and heritage, but simultaneously, recognizes the fact that she is an American. It is a self-selected term that usually applies to those Mexican-American women who acknowledge a dominance of males in society, and a history of discrimination and neglect in both the household and the workplace" ( Exploring the Chicana Feminist Movement, University of Michigan).  "Chicana" is a term of ethnic and national identity tied to both the United States and Mexico in that it emerged from Mexican origin communities in the United States...Chicana is a gendered word in that, according to Spanish grammatical rules, the ending vowel of "a" references the female. Therefore, "Chicana" describes a women or girl of Mexican ancestry belonging to the United States, This belonging is often formalized with citizenship (by birth or "naturalization"), though not necessarily, in that many Mexicans with or without legal status in the United States form part of families, economies, social networks, histories, and residences that stretch and circulate back and form across the border. In this sense, being Chicana is less about one's legal status and more about one's social experience and personal identity. (Solorzano Torres and Hernandez, 2010, Chicana Studies: An Introduction, Vol. I). Chicanismo/Chicanozaje  "historical awareness of the Chicanos' role as oppressed members of society. [It] stresses the acts of being (how the past has shaped them) and becoming (how they will shape the future)." (Vigil, 2012, From Indians to Chicanos).  "Chicanismo referred to a set of beliefs" (i.e., equality, freedoms, and fairness); which leads to particular, "political practices." The emphasis of Chicanismo upon dignity, self-worth, pride, uniqueness, and a felling of cultural rebirth made it attractive to many Mexicans in a way that cut across class, regional, and generational emphasized Mexican cultural -and social- consciousness and heritage as well as pride in speaking Spanish language and economic opportunity...Chicanismo meant a politically charged Mexicanidad." (Gomez-Quinones, 1990, Chicano Politics: Reality & Promise 1940-1990).  "An ideology that emerged as a challenge to the dominant institutions, assumptions, politics, principles, political leaders, and organizations, pride, uniqueness, feelings of cultural rebirth, and equal economic opportunity..." (Garcia, I. 1998, Chicanismo).  Conceptual framework (ideals, concepts, values and beliefs) informing Chicana/o activism; founded in notions of equality, justice, freedom and democracy.  "An ideology (that) served to link activist in their struggle for self-determination and the push for institutional building. The Movement was driven by profound political and cultural ideas on being "Chicano." This active philosophy came to be known as Chicanismo." (Soldatenko, 2009, Chicano Studies: The Genesis of a Discipline).  In its fullest sense, "Chicana" reflects a political consciousness and practice on behalf of social equality and justice. The consciousness emerged out of the Chicano Movement of the 1960s and 70s. During this period, a philosophy of "Chicanismo" prevailed, which emphasized race, ethnicity, class, and nationality for defining self- and group-identity and the key sites of struggle for civil and human rights." (Solorzano Torres and Hernandez, 2010, Chicana Studies: An Introduction, Vol. I). Hispanic/Hispanic Americans  term coined by the US "federal government for all Spanish-speaking, Spanish-surnamed Americans" (Vigil, 1998, From Indians to Chicanos).  1970s term popularized by the Nixon administration term, middle-class (Acuna, 1986, Occupied America).  "Hispanic reflects a ...insensitivity in that it downplays our Indian heritage in favor of the European and fails to distinguish us from other Spanish-speaking groups" (Mirande, A. 1985, The Chicano Experience)  "applies to persons with historical origins in Spanish-speaking cultures...[it] is an inclusive term that encompasses various groups with diverse countries of origin, cultural backgrounds, and histories (1996, President's Advisory Commission).  "officially identifies people of Latin American and Spanish descent living in the US today" (Oboler, 1995, Ethnic Labels, Latino Lives).  umbrella term used by the mainstream to describe people of Spanish-speaking origin living in the U.S. as one; denotes language Latino/a  "...persons of Latin American origin living in the U.S. (Solozano, 1995. Educational Experience of Chicanos).  "all groups whose ethnicity originates in Latin America (Zambrana, 1995, Understanding Latino Families).  "Latino is the umbrella term for people of Latin American descent that in recent years has supplanted the more imprecise and bureaucratic designation "Hispanic." (Ramirez Berg, 2002, Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, Resistance)  an umbrella term used to lump people of Latin American descent together La Raza  term used to identify Mexican American people (Rosales, 1996, Chicano!).  "term used within the Mexican America community to refer to people of Latino descent" (Garcia, 1998, Chicanismo). mestizo  "In 1521 nacio una nueva raza, el mestizo, el Mexicano (people of mixed Indian and Spanish blood), a race that had never existed before. Chicanos, Mexican-Americans, are the offspring of those first matings" (Anzaldua, 1999, Borderlands).  Individuals defined as racially mixed (Vigil, 2012, From Indians to Chicanos). Mexican/Mexican national  "...a person who has retained his or her citizenship of the country of Mexico and resides in Mexico, is temporarily in the United States, or even resides in the United States without becoming a citizen" (Tatum, 2001, Chicano Popular Culture: Que Hable el Pueblo). Mexican Americans/Mexican-Americans  "Mexican-American is analogous to Negro or colored, whereas Chicano is analogous to black. Both terms [Chicano and Mexican-American] denote persons of Mexican extraction living in the U.S., but they have very different connotations. By using Mexican-American in lieu of Chicano one consciously or unconsciously makes a political choice." (Mirande, 1985, Chicano Experience)  "an American citizen who generally resides in the Unites States and whose parent(s) are of Mexican descent. Such a person may be a naturalized U.S. citizen, a first-generation citizen, or one whose family roots extend as far back as the sixteenth century" (Tatum, 2001, Chicano Popular Culture: Que Hable el Pueblo). Pocho/a  Usually disparaging, an American of Mexican parentage, especially one who has adopted US customs and attitudes; an Americanized Mexican  implies one has lost their Mexicaness. Spanish American  "The majority of Mexican Americans in New Mexico, especially those in the northern part of the state, cherish a Spanish legacy as opposed to Mexican traditions..." (Munoz, Jr. 1989, Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement). Aztlan  The name used by the Aztecs to refer to the place of their origin.  South West region of the US taken from Mexico as a result of the Mexican-US war, includes California, Texas, New Mexico, and most of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming (Munoz, 2011, Youth Identity and Power).  The mythological homeland of Chicanos/as and encompasses most of the Southwest. It is a term appropriated by Chicano/a activists during the Movement of the 60s and 70s to symbolize the spirit and destiny of the Chicano/a people. As a professor of Chicana and Chicano Studies at San Diego State University, I often get asked what is a Chicano? However, I prefer to first outline what a Chicano is not. Chicana and Chicano are not ethnic identities as they are often misunderstood to be. They are instead chosen political identities: affirmations rooted in social movements of the 1960s and 1970s, and grounded in a reclamation of the rights, values, languages, knowledge and lands of the Indigenous peoples throughout the continent. Some note a generational shift towards a more radical moment, akin to the transformation from civil rights to Black Power after Watts 1965. One thing is clear: The spiritual and political underpinnings of the Chican@ Movement called for self-determination — the ability to collectively determine one's future. In a context where most ethnic/racial labels were imbued with power such that regardless of one's actual background many with Brown skin would be seen as "dirty Mexicans" or "dirty Indians," the notion of self-naming was crucial to self-determination. It is thus that Chicano is often hailed — from the 1969 National Youth and Liberation Conference in Denver to Chicano Park to the barrios of Texas — as the first name we gave ourselves recognizing each other as uprooted Indigenous peoples, colonization and racial mestizaje notwithstanding. Focusing on generations, some identify a shift from a Mexican American period to a Chicano period. This is only partially true. The reality is more complex, as the above assumes Mexican Americans were passive and oriented towards assimilation to whiteness, whereas the Chicano was militant and rejected dominant Anglo societal norms. In truth, not all "brown-skinned" folks were Mexican American exclusively. Some hailed from the Caribbean and other Central and South American countries, while others were/are Chumash, Luiseño, Tongva, O'odham, Tewa, Apache and a myriad of other Indigenous nationalities but were "Mexicanized" or read as Mexican by virtue of the existing power dynamics of the last two centuries. The generational model also erases very real community-based, labor, political and cultural forms of resistance and expression that predate the Chicano Movement among the diverse multi-hued peoples who came to call themselves Chicano. On Feb. 6, 1970, a Los Angeles Times column headlined "Who Is a Chicano? And What Is It the Chicanos Want?" by Ruben Salazar began, "A Chicano is a Mexican-American with a non-Anglo image of himself." Salazar would call the self-identification "an act of defiance and a badge of honor." The opening line, stature and fate of Salazar, who was killed by a Los Angeles County sheriff's deputy later that year, helped cement an idea of Chicano limited to Mexican Americans. Grab a dictionary today and you will find a variation of the same, self-determination and self-naming out the window. However, the latter part continues to ring true; Chicano today as yesterday is an act of defiance and a badge of honor that foregrounds the historical connection of Raza — Mexican, Hispano, Latinx or whatever one calls oneself — to the diverse original peoples of this continent who have migrated in all directions irrespective of any relatively recent manmade borders. Those who carry forth that self- naming of Chicano, or Chicana, or Chicanx, are inheritors of generations of resistance, defiance, resilience and dignity. While debate rages regarding the affixes a/o, x, or @, emerging from a critique of the gendered (a/o) nature of the Spanish language, some Chicanas highlight the difficult battles to get the -a acknowledged. Others note the issue is an intra-Spanish linguistic debate further complicating the work of Indigenous language and cultural revitalization. Here in San Diego, another "x" is worth mentioning. The one in MeXicano from which comes the Ch- sound in Chicano. Early local movement documents reveal the prevalence of the Nahuatl- inflected Xicano, whose meaning is an Indigenous affirmation of our connectedness to the Earth. This is one reason, alongside ties to the Kumeyaay and grappling with the border that divides some into "Mexicans" and others into "Native Americans," that San Diego was an Indigenist epicenter of the Chicano movement. Many of us continue to struggle against the violence physical and social borders represent — against Brown children being caged and separated from parents as Native children were when sent to Americanization schools. We recognize recent migrant caravans as resulting from displacements of new generations of Indigenous peoples through disastrous economic policies and growing climate catastrophe. Chicana/o/x or Xicano (in its original Nahuatl form without the a/o gendering logic of Spanish) is thus still a constant reminder of the need to decolonize, to indigenize, to strengthen our commitment to, defense of and relationship to our Mother Earth (i.e., environmentally sustainable social and political practices and policies) for the sake of the survival not just of a people or culture, but for the sake of all humanity and all life as we know it on this floating rock in the cosmos. How do the various scholars and Chicana/o activists define the word, concept and meaning of Chicana/o. (use 2-3 quotes from material above ) How do you define the word "Chicana/o"? What are the social and political meanings behind this word? (use 2-3 quotes from material above )

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